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Powder Coating
Basics
This information was edited from the Wagner Powder Systems Training Manual

Types of Powder Coatings

Powder is basically dry paint consisting of 4 or 5 components:

  1. Resin
  2. Crosslinker (not used in Thermo plastic powders)
  3. Pigments
  4. Flow Aids
  5. Degassing Solvent (Solid)
Two basic types of powders: Thermoset Powders Curing or crosslinking takes place so that once cured, the coating will not remelt.
The majority of powder coatings today are thermosetting type powder.
Typical Thermosetting type powders are:
Thermoplastic Powders Do not crosslink and can remelt after curing when exposed to sufficient heat.
Typical Thermoplastic powders are:
Five Basic Kinds of Powder (Table 1):

Epoxies, Epoxy/Polyester (Hybrid), Polyester Urethanes, TGIC Polyester, Acrylic Urethane
Table 1 Typical Properties of Thermosetting Powder Coatings
Properties
Epoxy
Epoxy/polyester
Hybrid
TGIC
Polyester
Polyester
Urethane
Acrylic
Urethane
Application mils 1-20 mils 1-10 mils 1-10 mils 1-3.5 mils 1-3.5 mils
Cure Cycle 450F 3 min 450F 3 min 400F 7 min 400F 7 min 400F 7 min
Weather-Ability Poor Poor Excellent Very Good Very Good
Pencil Hardness 11B-511 11B-211 11B-211 11B-311 11B-311
Adhesion Excellent Excellent Excellent Excellent Excellent
Chemical Resistance Excellent Very Good Good Good Very Good
Functional vs. Decorative Powders

Most Decorative Coatings are applied as relatively thin (1-4 mils) thermoset powder coatings and typically used for:

Functional powders are typically used for protective purposes.

Kinds of Powder:

Epoxy Polyester Hybrid Powders

Not suitable for outdoor applications.
Resistant to over-baking.
Typical Applications:
Polyester TGIC Powders Maintains excellent mechanical properties at film build above 3 mils.
Good edge coverage
Typical Applications:
Polyester Urethane Powder Combine very smooth, thin film, excellent mar and chip resistance, and good weathering properties.
Applications include:
Acrylic Urethane Offers better weathering, and improved chemical resistance compared to polyester urethanes.
Flexibility and impact resistance is poor.
Typical Applications:
GMA Acrylic Powders Faster cure and improved weatherability than acrylic urethanes.
Well suited for clear top coats.
Typical Applications:
Acrylic Hybrid Powders Offer good weatherability, mechanical properties, and flexibility, but not outdoor durable.
Typical Applications:
Thermoplastic Powder Coatings Require high temperature (300-750 degree F) to achieve melt and flow.
Have poor or marginal adhesion to most substances.
Surface preparation prior to powder coating is critical.
Polyamides Nylon based coating with outstanding functional characteristics such as: Polyolefins Vinyls Polyester Polyvinyl Fluoride (PUDF) Outstanding exterior durability, better than any other powder coating material.
Needs a chromate primer.
Have excellent electrical insulating properties and chemical resistance.
Typical Applications:
POWDER VS LIQUID COATING COST ADVANTAGES Energy cost differences due to heating a conveyor, tooling, and product being coated sometimes comes out in favor of liquid coating due to high temperature of curing powder (average 400 degree F).

Labor and Maintenance

POWDER STORAGE AND HANDLING Issues affecting storage are: Keep boxes and containers closed.
Do Not re-use powder containers for the storage of new products.
Do not store powder near the coating line, washers, or ovens.
Conditioning When storage conditions are not the same as application conditions: Industrial Hygiene Powder should not be inhaled wear a dust mask.
Check the MSDA sheets before using.

PowderOvens.com is a division Spray Tech Systems, Inc. Oklahoma City, OK 73127      
Phone: 800.777.7729 or 405.948.8696 / Fax: 405.948.8160
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